Create Table

The create table query can be used to add new tables to nanoSQL while it's running. If you'd like to adjust an existing table use the alter table query instead.

NanoSQL data models and indexes are loosely defined, you can easily change the data models/indexes as often or as dramatically as you'd like. The current data model for each table is used to restrict rows and updates going into the database. Once you change the data model/indexes all the old rows might not match your new data model or be indexed correctly, so a conform rows query might be needed.

Extremely Important After a table is created you can use alter table or tweak the table in your connect() call to adjust almost anything including adding or removing columns/indexes, changing the table name and many other things. The one thing you can't ever change is the primary key column or type. Once the table is created the primary key column and type is written in stone. If you have to change the primary key column/type a new table has to be made and all the rows from the original table imported into it.

The create table query accepts a single argument that's an object described by the InanoSQLTableConfig interface.

Making Tables

Let's look at a simple example:

nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:int": {pk: true, ai: true}, // pk = primary key, ai = auto increment
        "age:int": {default: 13, max: 110, min: 13},
        "name:string": {default: "none", notNull: true}
    }
}).exec().then..

In the above example, we have three columns. id is a column containing an int or integer value, it's also the primary key column that will be auto incremented. The age column is of type int as well, has a default value of 13, a min value of 13 and a max value of 110. The final column is name, it's of type string and has a default value of "none" and must not be null.

Important Table names and column names must contain only letters, numbers and underscores "_". They cannot begin with an underscore.

Rows from the above table would look like this:

{id: 1, age: 25, name: "jeb"}

nanoSQL supports many types, including all primitive typescript types. Here is a complete list of supported types you can use in your columns:

Type Description
any, blob These types will not actually type cast, just pass through whatever value is provided.
safestr A safe string type, automatically replaces HTML entities with HTML special characters.
string Simple string type.
int Integer type, floating point numbers will be rounded to the nearest whole number. Strings will be parsed into integers. Everything else becomes zero. Works with auto increment as primary key type.
number, float Floating point type, numbers will pass through, strings will be converted to numbers using parseFloat, everything else will become a zero.
array Same as any[]
uuid, timeId, timeIdms An extension of the string type. Doesn't perform any validation beyond making sure the value is a string. If any of these are used in a primary key column they will autogenerate as needed.
object, obj, map Only allows javascript objects {} into the column.
boolean, bool true and the number 1 resolve to true, everything else resolves to false.
date ISO8601 date field
geo An object containing lat and lon properties, represents a geographic coordinate.

Any type is also supported as an array or array of arrays, (or arrays of arrays of arrays...) examples: any[], any[][], number[], string[], etc.

Primary Keys cannot be geo, object, obj, array or map types.

For each column the column name and column type are declared as a new key in the data model, properties for that column are then added to the object for that column key. Supported properties are:

Property Type Description
pk boolean Use this column as the table's primary key.
ai boolean Enable auto increment for int type primary keys.
notNull boolean Don't allow NULL values into this column.
default any | () => any The default value for this column if no value is provided on create. If a function is used it will be called on each insert to get the value for this column.
max number If the column is a number type, limit the values to be no higher than this.
min number If the column is a number type, limit the values to be no lower than this.
model Object A nested data model.

When you use the obj, object, or map types you can declare a nested data model for that column. This can be nested infinitely, so if your rows contain complicated objects nanoSQL will type cast all the way down. Objects are also supported as arrays, so if you need an array of objects type casted it's just as easy.

nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:uuid": {pk: true}, // pk = primary key
        "name:string" {},
        "meta:obj[]", { // array of objects
            model: {
                "key:string": {},
                "value:any": {},
                "details:obj": { // nested object
                    model: {
                        "detail1:string": {default: ""},
                        "detail2:string": {default: ""}
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}).exec().then..

// example row for the above data model:
/*
{
    id: "de1decb9-5e8a-420a-a578-ae46555977d6",
    name: "Jeb",
    meta: [
        {
            key: "some key",
            value: "some value",
            details: {
                detail1: "hello",
                detail2: "world
            }
        }
    ]
}
*/

Indexes

NanoSQL supports secondary indexes on any column, including nested columns or values inside array columns.

The index syntax is very similar to data model syntax and supports these types: int, float, number, date, and string, these types can also be indexed as one dimensional arrays. geo type can also be indexed, but not as an array.

Standard Secondary Indexes

nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:uuid": {pk: true}, // pk = primary key
        "name:string" {},
        "age:int": {},
        "favorites:obj": {
            model: {
                "sport:string":{},
                "icecream:string": {}
            }
        }
    },
    indexes: {
        // one index on the age column
        "age:int":{}
        // one index on the nested favorite sport column
        "favorites.sport:string": {}
    }
}).exec().then..

Also like data model columns, each index can have additional properties attached to it that change the behavior of the index on that column.

Supported properties are:

Property Type Description
unique boolean Only allow one row per index value. More info
ignore_case boolean For string indexes, this will cause all inserts and queries into the index to be lowercase. More info
offset number For float, int or number indexes, offset inserts and queries by this amount. More info
foreignKey {target: string, onDelete: InanoSQLFKActions } Provide a foreign key value for this index. More Info

Once created normal (non array type) indexes can be used in where conditions with =, IN, BETWEEN , or LIKE conditions.

// Indexed queries
// get all users with an age between 19 and 25
nSQL("users").query("select").where(["age", "BETWEEN", [19, 25]]).exec();
// get all users who have basebal OR soccor as their favorite sport
nSQL("users").query("select").where(["favorites.sport", "IN", ["baseball", "soccor"]]).exec();
// get all users who's favorite sports starts with "base".  Would return baseball, base jumping, etc.
nSQL("users").query("select").where(["favorites.sport", "LIKE", "base%"]).exec();
// get all users who's age is exactly 25.
nSQL("users").query("select").where(["age", "=", 25]).exec();

// Indexed queries also allow indexed orderBy results:
nSQL("users").query("select").orderBy(["age ASC"]).exec();

Using LIKE with indexes that are string type works like an autocomplete, pass in the beginning of the search term followed by "%" to signify the ending wildcard. If this specific format isn't followed the LIKE condition will not use the index.

Orderby queries can also use indexes, they only work when you're using a single column in the orderBy query and that column is either a standard (non array) secondary index or primary key.

You can also safely index values inside arrays of your columns. These don't count as array indexes since each index row is still holding a single value.

// index values inside an array 
nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:uuid": {pk: true}, // pk = primary key
        "name:string" {},
        "age:int": {},
        "meta:obj[]": {
            model: {
                "key:string":{},
                "value:string": {}
            }
        }
    },
    indexes: {
        // index the first meta value
        "meta[0].key:string": {}
    }
}).exec().then..

Unique Indexes

Normally indexes allow multiple rows to be attached to each index value. You can change this and set indexes to only allow a single row for each indexed value:

// index values inside an array 
nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:uuid": {pk: true}, // pk = primary key
        "name:string" {},
        "age:int": {},
        "email:string": {}
    },
    indexes: {
        "email:string": {unique: true} // only one account per email
    }
}).exec().then..

If unique is enabled, upsert queries that attempt to add a second row to a given secondary index value will fail.

Array Indexes

You can also index arrays of values, like this:

nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:uuid": {pk: true}, // pk = primary key
        "name:string" {},
        "age:int": {},
        "favorites:obj": {
            model: {
                "sports:string[]":{},
            }
        }
    },
    indexes: {
        // now indexing an array of values
        "favorites.sports:string[]": {}
    }
}).exec().then..

Array indexes only work with INCLUDES, INTERSECT ALL , INTERSECT, and INCLUDES LIKE where conditions. They will not work with =, BETWEEN, IN or LIKE used with standard indexes.

You can safely array index with int, number, string, and float types.

// some valid queries with array indexes
nSQL("users").query("select").where(["favorites.sports", "INCLUDES", "baseball"]).exec();
nSQL("users").query("select").where(["favorites.sports", "INTERSECT", ["soccor", "baseball"]]).exec();

// INCLUDES LIKE only works for string array indexes: string[]
// get all users who's favorite sports array includes a string that starts with "base".
nSQL("users").query("select").where(["favorites.sports", "INCLUDES LIKE", "base%"]).exec();

Geo Data Type

The geo data type can be indexed but has some special conditions with its indexing behavior. First, the geo data type cannot be indexed if it's an array index type.

nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:uuid": {pk: true}, // pk = primary key
        "name:string" {},
        "loc:geo": {}
        // "loc:geo[]": {} <= can't index this
    },
    indexes: {
        // index geo data type
        "loc:geo": {},
        // "loc:geo[]": {} <= can't index this
    }
}).exec().then..

When inserting/reading values from the geo data type, you should be using or expecting an object with a lat and lon property containing the latitude and longitude coordinates.

// valid geo data type:
{lat: 37.331740, lon: -122.030448}

The only way to take advantage of the geo index is with the CROW function, like this:

// get all users within 3 km of -20, 30
nSQL("users").query("select").where(["CROW(loc, -20, 30)", "<", 3]).exec()

The CROW function uses kilometers by default, you can change the value at nSQL().planetRadius to a different unit value to change this.

The only supported compare in the where statement for geo the index are < and <=, all other compares will lead to a full table scan.

Case Insensitive Indexes

You can optionally setup the index to ignore casing.

nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:uuid": {pk: true}, // pk = primary key
        "name:string" {}
    },
    indexes: {
        "name:string": {ignore_case: true}
    }
}).exec().then..

When this is enabled, the secondary index will ignore casing on updates and queries.

nSQL("users").query("upsert", {name: "Jeb"}).exec().then(() => {
    return nSQL().query("select").where(["name", "=", "jeB"]).exec();
}).then((rows) => {
    console.log(rows); // [{id: "xxx", name: "Jeb"}]
});

This also works with the autocomplete feature for indexes:

nSQL().query("select").where(["name", "LIKE", "j%"]).exec().then((rows) => {
    console.log(rows); // [{id: "xxx", name: "Jeb"}]
});

Index Offsets

When indexing int, float and number types you'll find that negative values don't always work with BETWEEN queries. Database engines typically have problems with sorting negative numbers & positive numbers since there isn't a real way to sort them correctly using binary.

This doesn't really matter if you're using an array index like int[], float[], or number[] since BETWEEN queries don't work with these types anyway. But if you're using a standard index where range queries will be needed, this can represent a problem.

The solution is using an offset, where all numbers are raised by a specific amount so that no negative numbers make it into the index.

nSQL().query("create table", {
    name: "users",
    model: {
        "id:uuid": {pk: true}, // pk = primary key
        "name:string" {},
        "balance:int": {}
    },
    indexes: {
        // offset all balances by 100
        "balance:int": {offset: 100}
    }
}).exec().then..

With the optional offfset property, you can have nanoSQL automatically adjust the values as they are added to the index, then adjust your queries when they request values from the index. It all happens behind the scenes, so you can be oblivious to the complexity besides this small adjustment to your data model.

Important If you add or adjust an offset to an existing index, you MUST rebuild the index after the change or you'll have a bad time.

The offset should be set to the opposite of the lowest number you expect in the index. For example, if you expect the values in the index to go as low as -500, you should set the offset to be 500 or maybe even a bit higher. If you set the offset to something insane like 99999999 the database will take longer to insert and query the rows with longer digits so there is a cost to just throwing a big number in there. Try to keep the offset as low as possible while still keeping in range of your negative numbers.

If you aren't planning on querying negative numbers with BETWEEN on your index, the offset isn't needed.

Foreign Keys

You can also setup foreign keys in your database. Foreign keys must exist as a property of an existing index, they're used to keep rows in sync across tables.

Let's take a look at a simple example, keeping track of user posts.

import { nSQL } from "nano-sql";
import { InanoSQLFKActions } from "@nano-sql/core/lib/interfaces";

nSQL.connect({
    tables: [
        {
            name: "users",
            model: {
                "id:int":{pk: true},
                "num:int":{}
            }
        },
        {
            name: "posts",
            model: {
                "id:int":{pk:true},
                "title:string":{},
                "user:int":{}
            },
            indexes: {
                "user:int":{
                    foreignKey: { // foreign key property
                        target: "users.id", // parent Table.column or Table.nested.column
                        onDelete: InanoSQLFKActions.RESTRICT
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    ]
})

The supported onDelete properties are:

On Delete Does...
RESTRICT Don't allow a parent row to be deleted if child rows exist attached to it.
CASCADE Delete child records when a parent is deleted
SET_NULL Set child record columns to NULL on delete
NONE Do nothing with the foreign key restriction, default.

Foreign keys are a pretty complicated topic, you can read more on this website about how they work.

Preset Queries

You can setup preset queries, these are useful for securing server side requests coming from clients or declaring all the data setters/getters inline with the table.

nSQL().createDatabase({
    tables: [
        {
            name: "users",
            model: {
                "id:uuid": {pk: true},
                "name:string" {},
                "balance:int": {}
            },
            queries: [
                {
                    name: "getById",
                    args: {
                        "id:uuid":{}
                    },
                    call: (db, args) => {
                        // use .emit() to export query
                        return db.query("select").where(["id", "=", args.id]).emit();
                    }
                }
            ]     
        }
    ]
})

Then, to use the preset query simply call the presetQuery method with the arguments of the desired query, then execute as normal.

The result of presetQuery is a standard query object, it works the same as any other query.

const query = nSQL("users").presetQuery("getById", {id: "xxx"});

// any of these will work
query.exec().then..
query.stream(onRow, onComplete, onError)
query.cache(cacheReady, error)
query.toCSV().then..
Last Updated: 4/19/2019, 11:59:39 AM